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Acute Bacterial Meningitis Beyond the Neonatal Period

Cause of bacterial meningitis and its treatment during the neonatal period (0-28 days)
are generally different from those in older infants and children

Organism -
First 2 mo of life - maternal flora or the environment of the infant - group B
Streptococcus, gram-negative enteric bacilli, and Listeria monocytogenes, H. influenzae
Bacterial meningitis in children 2 mo-12 yr of age is due to S. pneumoniae, N.
meningitidis, or H. influenzae type b.


A leading cause of chronic illness in childhood.
Asthma is the most frequent admitting diagnosis in children's hospitals
10-15% of boys and 7-10% of girls may have asthma at some time during childhood.
Asthma can lead to severe psychosocial disturbances in the family.
With proper treatment, however, satisfactory control of symptoms is usually possible.

Acute Poststreptococcal Glomerulonephritis

It is acute nephritic syndrome: the sudden onset of gross hematuria, edema, hypertension, and
renal insufficiency. Most common cause of gross hematuria in children next is IgA


Pneumonia caused by S. aureus
serious and rapidly progressive infection.
less frequent than viral or pneumococcal pneumonia. 

Acute Bronchitis

Bronchitis is associated with infection of the upper and lower respiratory tracts, and the
trachea is usually involved. Bronchiolitis is an entirely different illness
Asthma exacerbations are triggered by upper respiratory tract infections. Calling such
exacerbations "asthmatic bronchitis," although technically correct, may confuse parents 

Acute tracheobronchitis is commonly associated with an upper respiratory tract infection
such as nasopharyngitis, influenza, Pertussis, measles, typhoid fever, diphtheria.
Pneumococci, staphylococci, Haemophilus influenzae, and hemolytic streptococci may be
isolated from the sputum, but their presence does not imply a bacterial cause, and
antibiotic therapy does not appreciably alter the course of the illness. Allergy, climate, air
pollution, and chronic infections of the upper respiratory tract, particularly sinusitis, may
be contributing factors.

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